7 Янв 2021

python vigenere cipher crack


#      getNthSubkeysLetters(1, 5, 'ABCDEFGHI') returns 'AF'143.144. However, before we can analyze the frequency of each factor, we’ll need to use the set() function to remove any duplicate factors from the factors list. If a factor doesn’t exist as a key in factorCounts, it’s added on line 92 with a value of 0. Of course, the hacker won’t know the original message or the key, but they will see in the TIGGSLGULTIGFEY ciphertext that the sequence TIG appears at index 0 and index 9. Because the encoding of the message depends on the keyword used, a given message could be encoded in 2 6 k 26^k 2 6 … # Instead of typing this ciphertext out, you can copy & paste it 16. 26 26 6 100% of 14 27 NaMe613. Note that 3 appears first in the list because it’s the most frequent factor; 13 is the least frequent factor and therefore is last in the list. In order to cipher a text, take the first letter of the message and the first letter of the key, add their value (letters have a value depending on their rank in the alphabet, starting with 0). 26. 63. This is why allFreqScores[i][indexes[i]] evaluates to the correct tuple we want. The hacking code works only on uppercase letters, but we want to return any decrypted string with its original casing, so we need to preserve the original string. The second, more sophisticated method, which was used by the 19th-century mathematician Charles Babbage, works even when the key is a random group of letters, such as VUWFE or PNFJ. This variable starts as an empty list on line 168 and then the for loop on line 169 loops through each of the 26 uppercase letters from the LETTERS string: 168.         freqScores = []169.         for possibleKey in LETTERS:170.             decryptedText = vigenereCipher.decryptMessage(possibleKey,                   nthLetters). In this case, line 62 returns the empty list because num would have had no useful factors if it were less than 2. Each key repeats for the length of the message. 176.         allFreqScores.append(freqScores[:NUM_MOST_FREQ_LETTERS]). for i in range(mostLikelyKeyLength):192.             possibleKey += allFreqScores[i][indexes[i]][0]193.194.         if not SILENT_MODE:195.             print('Attempting with key: %s' % (possibleKey))196.197.         decryptedText = vigenereCipher.decryptMessage(possibleKey,               ciphertextUp)198.199.         if detectEnglish.isEnglish(decryptedText):200. Two methods exist to hack the Vigenère cipher. Each of the items in the list returned from getUsefulFactors() is added to seqFactors[seq] using the extend() method. "Please enter the vigenere encoded string, encoded from a english plaintext: # Clean the input from non-alphabetical characters. Ioi avey xuek fkbt, alv xtgaf xyev kpagy! Tue 07 March 2017. #!/usr/bin/env python # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-""" Crack Vigenere ~~~~~ Searches for the key (length must be given) to a text encrypted with the `Vigenere cipher`_. # Determine what the sequence is and store it in seq: 41.             seq = message[seqStart:seqStart + seqLen], Figure 20-2: Values of seq from message depending on the value in seqStart. (Remember that the / operator always evaluates to a float value, such as 21 / 7 evaluating to the float 3.0 instead of the int 3.) The first keyword the program suggests (ASTROLOGY) doesn’t work, so the user presses enter to let the hacking program continue until it finds the correct decryption key (ASTRONOMY). Although we now have the ability to find the likely key lengths the message was encrypted with, we need to be able to separate letters from the message that were encrypted with the same subkey. If attemptHackWithKeyLength() does not return None, the hack is successful, and the program execution should break out of the for loop on line 238. You can also pass list values to itertools.product() and some values similar to lists, such as range objects returned from range(). By "useful" we mean factors 58. text: Text to compare letter frequencies to. It assumes that you are using a computer and can write simple code. When the program execution breaks out of a loop, it immediately moves to the first line of code after the loop ends. For example, if the key was ROSEBUD with a length of 7, there would be 267, or 8,031,810,176, possible keys. What two changes happen when converting a list value to a set value with the set() function? The extend() list method can add values to the end of a list, similar to the append() list method. The Vigenère Cipher was invented in 1553 by the… Vigenére cipher involves using multiple Caesar ciphers to encrypt a message, making it much harder to crack. Run the following code in the interactive shell: >>> import freqAnalysis, vigenereCipher>>> for subkey in 'ABCDEFGHJIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ':...   decryptedMessage = vigenereCipher.decryptMessage(subkey,         'PAEBABANZIAHAKDXAAAKIU')...   print(subkey, decryptedMessage,         freqAnalysis.englishFreqMatchScore(decryptedMessage))...A PAEBABANZIAHAKDXAAAKIU 2B OZDAZAZMYHZGZJCWZZZJHT 1--snip--, Table 20-4: English Frequency Match Score for Each Decryption. # length of the ciphertext's encryption key is:226.     allLikelyKeyLengths = kasiskiExamination(ciphertext). 26 26 6 100% of 14 27 NaMe613. NUM_MOST_FREQ_LETTERS = 4 # Attempt this many letters per subkey. When you need to add multiple values to the end of a list, there is an easier way than calling append() inside a loop. 75. There are automated Vigenere solvers online. You can find the python code at pastebin. Otherwise, if none of the decryptions look like English, the hacking has failed and the None value is returned: Finally, all of the functions we’ve defined will be used by the hackVigenere() function, which accepts a ciphertext string as an argument and returns the hacked message (if hacking was successful) or None (if it wasn’t). returns: a String with only alphabetical characters. The correctly cased decrypted text is printed to the screen for the user to confirm it is English. # Found a repeated sequence: 47.                     if seq not in seqSpacings: 48.                         seqSpacings[seq] = [] # Initialize blank list. # Use a regular expression to remove non-letters from the message: 34.     message = NONLETTERS_PATTERN.sub('', message.upper()) 35. But the hacking program in this book does a pretty good job of reducing billions or trillions of possible keys to mere thousands. Suppose we have a lowercase alphabet string text, and have another string called key. returns: A string containing every n:th character in text, at from start. The next step is to repeat this process for the other three strings to find their most likely subkeys. # Determine the most likely letters for each letter in the key:157.     ciphertextUp = ciphertext.upper(). When you run the vigenereDictionaryHacker.py program, the output should look like this: Possible encryption break:Key ASTROLOGY: The recl yecrets crk not the qnks I tell.Enter D for done, or just press Enter to continue breaking:>Possible encryption break:Key ASTRONOMY: The real secrets are not the ones I tell.Enter D for done, or just press Enter to continue breaking:> dCopying hacked message to clipboard:The real secrets are not the ones I tell. Rotates text n steps to the right, wrapping it around itself. # Check with user to see if the decrypted key has been found:28.             print()29.             print('Possible encryption break:')30.             print('Key ' + str(word) + ': ' + decryptedText[:100])31.             print()32.             print('Enter D for done, or just press Enter to continue                  breaking:')33.             response = input('> ')34.35.             if response.upper().startswith('D'):36.                 return decryptedText37.38. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. The key starts as a blank string on line 190, and the for loop on line 191 iterates through the integers from 0 up to, but not including, mostLikelyKeyLength for each tuple to construct a key. Table 20-1: Encrypting THEDOGANDTHECAT with Two Different Keys. Any repeated list values are removed when a list is converted to a set. Passing 'ABC' and the integer 4 for the repeat keyword argument to itertools.product() returns an itertools product object ➊ that, when converted to a list, has tuples of four values with every possible combination of 'A', 'B', and 'C'. The getMostCommonFactors() function orders the most common factors in seqFactors from the most frequently occurring to the least occurring and returns them as a list of two-integer tuples. When you run the vigenereHacker.py program, the output should look like this: Kasiski examination results say the most likely key lengths are: 3 2 6 4 12Attempting hack with key length 3 (27 possible keys)...Possible letters for letter 1 of the key: A L MPossible letters for letter 2 of the key: S N OPossible letters for letter 3 of the key: V I ZAttempting with key: ASVAttempting with key: ASI--snip--Attempting with key: MOIAttempting with key: MOZAttempting hack with key length 2 (9 possible keys)...Possible letters for letter 1 of the key: O A EPossible letters for letter 2 of the key: M S IAttempting with key: OMAttempting with key: OS--snip--Attempting with key: ESAttempting with key: EIAttempting hack with key length 6 (729 possible keys)...Possible letters for letter 1 of the key: A E OPossible letters for letter 2 of the key: S D GPossible letters for letter 3 of the key: I V XPossible letters for letter 4 of the key: M Z QPossible letters for letter 5 of the key: O B ZPossible letters for letter 6 of the key: V I KAttempting with key: ASIMOVPossible encryption hack with key ASIMOV:ALAN MATHISON TURING WAS A BRITISH MATHEMATICIAN, LOGICIAN, CRYPTANALYST, ANDCOMPUTER SCIENTIST. The science of cryptography emerged with the basic motive of providing security to the confidential messages transferred from one party to another. # Compile a list of seqLen-letter sequences found in the message: 37.     seqSpacings = {} # Keys are sequences; values are lists of int spacings. This illustrates the Vigenere cipher's "wrap-around" feature. After this for loop completes, the allLikelyKeyLengths variable should contain all the integer factors in factorsByCount, which gets returned as a list from kasiskiExamination(). 66. Step 6 Implement the encrypt and decrypt methods for the Vigenere cipher. return hackedMessage254.255.256. Guesses the keylength for the key used to encode text, with a vigenere cipher. # Found a repeated sequence: 47.                     if seq not in seqSpacings: 48.                         seqSpacings[seq] = [] # Initialize blank list. Whether it’s successful depends on the characteristics of the ciphertext. This alignment can happen at any multiple of the real key length (such as 3, 6, 9, 12, and so on), which is why the three-letter key can produce a repeated sequence with a spacing of 9. # List is sorted by match score. Cracking works by analyzing the frequency of occurences of letters. For example, 59. To generate an uncrackable message, you must: Python Server Side Programming Programming. 9. The i variable starts with the value nth - 1 on line 147, and the letters variable starts with a blank list on line 148. To do this, we use print() but pass an argument to an optional parameter we haven’t used before. factorsByCount = getMostCommonFactors(seqFactors)126.127. Enter the following into the interactive shell to see an example: >>> import itertools   >>> itertools.product('ABC', repeat=4)➊    >>> list(itertools.product('ABC', repeat=4))   [('A', 'A', 'A', 'A'), ('A', 'A', 'A', 'B'), ('A', 'A', 'A', 'C'), ('A', 'A',   'B', 'A'), ('A', 'A', 'B', 'B'), ('A', 'A', 'B', 'C'), ('A', 'A', 'C', 'A'),   ('A', 'A', 'C', 'B'), ('A', 'A', 'C', 'C'), ('A', 'B', 'A', 'A'), ('A', 'B',   'A', 'B'), ('A', 'B', 'A', 'C'), ('A', 'B', 'B', 'A'), ('A', 'B', 'B', 'B'),   --snip--   ('C', 'B', 'C', 'B'), ('C', 'B', 'C', 'C'), ('C', 'C', 'A', 'A'), ('C', 'C',   'A', 'B'), ('C', 'C', 'A', 'C'), ('C', 'C', 'B', 'A'), ('C', 'C', 'B', 'B'),   ('C', 'C', 'B', 'C'), ('C', 'C', 'C', 'A'), ('C', 'C', 'C', 'B'), ('C', 'C',   'C', 'C')]. Lines 130 to 134 store the separate list of factors in allLikelyKeyLengths. Note that these scores are low in general because there isn’t enough ciphertext to give us a large sample of text, but they work well enough for this example. # Second, put the factor and its count into a tuple and make a list 96. Next, we want to print output to the user. The Vigenère Cipher was invented in 1553 by the… For example, we would get a tuple of the most likely letter to be the second subkey and its frequency match score if we accessed allFreqScores[1][0], the second most likely letter from allFreqScores[1][1], and so on: >>> allFreqScores[1][0]('S', 10)>>> allFreqScores[1][1]('D', 4). Line 125 passes the seqFactors dictionary to the getMostCommonFactors() function and returns a list of two-integer tuples whose first integer represents the factor and whose second integer shows how often that factor appears in seqFactors. Every other cipher I've learnt so far was a piece of cake but this specific cipher is making me go insane. # https://www.nostarch.com/crackingcodes/ (BSD Licensed)  3. To prevent this, NUM_MOST_FREQ_LETTERS on line 9 limits the number of possible letters tried for each subkey. Instead, the second most likely or third most likely letter might be the right subkey letter. Enter the following into the interactive shell to see an example: >>> spam = ['cat', 'dog', 'mouse']>>> eggs = [1, 2, 3]>>> spam.extend(eggs)>>> spam['cat', 'dog', 'mouse', 1, 2, 3]. # [(, ), ... ]166. 106.     factorsByCount.sort(key=getItemAtIndexOne, reverse=True)107.108.     return factorsByCount. Now that we have possible lengths of the Vigenère key, we can use this information to decrypt the message one subkey at a time. No definitions found in this file. If the user enters 'D', the function returns the decryptedText string. vigenere cipher. 60. View All . The next value would be (0, 0, 0, 0, 1), then (0, 0, 0, 0, 2), and values would be generated until reaching (2, 2, 2, 2, 2). For this example, let’s assume that the key length is 4. As the i variable changes for each iteration of the for loop, the value at indexes[i] is the index of the tuple we want to use in allFreqScores[i]. 9. This results in a list that has a total of 34, or 81, tuples. In this video you can see, how you can establish the Vigenere Cipher with Python3. # Vigenere Cipher Hacker  2. This list shows that in the seqFactors dictionary that was passed to getMostCommonFactors(), the factor 3 occurred 556 times, the factor 2 occurred 541 times, the factor 6 occurred 529 times, and so on. Then press F5 to run the program. First of all, break the whole cipher text into number of sub-cipher-texts equal to the length of key. 1. For example, if we wanted to try only the first three most likely letters of each subkey (which is determined by NUM_MOST_FREQ_LETTERS) for a key that’s likely five letters long, the first value itertools.product() would produce would be (0, 0, 0, 0, 0). But this is much better than brute-forcing through 26 × 26 × 26 × 26 (or 456,976) possible keys, our task had we not narrowed down the list of possible subkeys. ('D', 4), ('G', 4), ('H', 4)], [('I', 11), ('V', 4), ('X', 4), ('B', 3)]. for subkey in 'ABCDEFGHJIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ': decryptedMessage = vigenereCipher.decryptMessage(subkey, {'VRA': [8, 24, 32], 'AZU': [48], 'YBN': [8]}, spam = list(set([2, 2, 2, 'cats', 2, 2])), list(itertools.product(range(8), repeat=5)). Because these letters from the original English message are encrypted with the same subkey ('X'), the decrypted text should have a letter frequency count similar to English. # Determine what the sequence is and store it in seq: 41.             seq = message[seqStart:seqStart + seqLen] 42. Line 118 starts with an empty dictionary in seqFactors. # English letter frequencies a-z, taken from: # http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Letter_frequency. The Vigenère cipher Line 93 increments factorCounts[factor], which is the factor’s value in factorCounts. So the integer that i - seqStart evaluates to is the number of letters between the two sequences, which we append to the list stored at seqSpacings[seq]. Regular expressions are discussed in “Finding Characters with Regular Expressions” on page 230. # use later:130.     allLikelyKeyLengths = []131.     for twoIntTuple in factorsByCount:132.         allLikelyKeyLengths.append(twoIntTuple[0])133.134.     return allLikelyKeyLengths135.136.137. We construct full Vigenère keys using indexes, which takes the value of one tuple created by itertools.product() on each iteration. Next, you’ll learn how to use the itertools.product() function to generate every possible combination of subkeys to brute-force. Karel. # find key length need to implement guess keylength properly, "FVHQZPSOGSQQNICBSUJZDAVEFFCPEEUQYICUTLGLFWRRZRGDJPFMDRONCXROQROMGQBHWDBFRTPDHLIDUHWEVQGDWTZDXXLZSWAZDYRJEUAHHLGHRQLFODROMTRVXGZDXSQJHVTRWHVNMBDPDAPHYDQRLREQFDGEUJHPJFCHBLYWQIDQJHVLXDUSAQFWMPECIEDKGWIXUBFEDQHKIGQFLJTOOWMZZCIEAMFWMNGZDVCQOOXTYSVCDFSPJLUZVASUQKLLBDHRDYCUIZRHHRETOQRZFOGMLSBRWEUQWVLOSLWLGHRQLFWFEWXMUIAAFWIOUBRVOQFWSQMQLPTFOWIOQPXKRUBJMEUGSSDEWEPPFCLRDFFXGEFVHZPDWIMPDHRSAFWPMDQHKEEUGWVJFCUIOGQHXSQJHVTRWFEEUCQXTYSZLPZGHZPDOOTCADHVEUSVSQMGBWEQADVPQLDQTZSGMYESTYPZQHEDUALPLDCSXTABISCEDDGPADWMXUGDXTABDPDASAMDFGA", "themodelcheckerperformsautomaticverificationofsafetyandboundedlivenesspropertiesittakesasinputanetworkoftimedautomataandaformulatheverifiercanalsobeusedinteractivelytoexamineseveralpropertiesofasystemincasetheverificationofaparticularrealtimesystemfailswhichhappensmoreoftenthannotadiagnostictraceisautomaticallyreportedinordertofacilitatedebuggingitispossibletoinstructtheverifiertooptimisethatistrytoreducetheverificationtimewhenseveralpropertiesofasystemareexaminedinsequenceasimilaroptionforspaceoptimisationalsoexistsx", "FFKASKWFRLFCEUEVIEQLTDFZSKAHNRLCRVOMEXHANFSYHDZFRJXCYEAEWHBRLWFPFCIFGFYRRJPVLBITALWBEUBAPVRPMOIIOLZOFPSRBKNYETHTJLTVKHHUTYTAXVFZGPNVLPBZNYERGZQVRZMOCEKKALJIOSELGKOSXXOZTVAVHVSKPPNYYFNPMKHRMFILVVGLPVRRVAORLCRRHFWEPOUKTYXXOVSKBVHZSSNACKWRLABVGIXHNHUVLACFNKALOCTZFHNVQLXZNZOEHMFZFVMOYLNZOLLJERGKYMEIRABZNXAVQCEUEVIEQLTDFPEJLHCUDVXWNYOLZONNIKAABVAZKVZFNVPOIJUWYLLJFFHSMXLRWSSSUKPOUKATMBUCLPBZCKAJEVQJTLILZZEULPFVNTXJLVPKHCYITYXTYEAJMOYPSKTYYUAKMOYTODIBNVRRGKNYEETAYRCYHABVR", "fortytwoyelledloonquawlisthatallyouvegottoshowforsevenandahalfmillionyearsworkicheckeditverythoroughlysaidthecomputerandthatdefinitelyistheanswerithinktheproblemtobequitehonestwithyouisthatyouveneveractuallyknownwhatthequestionisbutitwasthegreatquestiontheultimatequestionoflifetheuniverseandeverythinghowledloonquawlyessaiddeepthoughtwiththeairofonewhosuffersfoolsgladlybutwhatactuallyisitaslowstupefiedsilencecreptoverthemenastheystaredatthecomputerandthenateachother", "IYMNTPOHYUHZRPKCXNDSGGHKSASGLBGHBQGJGSLRDLVQGHYWZTASKHVZQQETBZPQCMEEWKEGJIZVCDPUAQDLBNMUEIGBXWAVYKXKDWATPOJTNLBFJNGPPJLEBUKKWLQBBBFASNRLBAGRXAAZDLZJHTHKYFQIPKUINGQULBELKDRPAPRETFPUSBIXELHDRRVQFOGONEQDASAEZBEQTBUELYUNPKBUEIWHYCYABFASWIGUAUADSURCORNCDPQEVVVWULHHBQRAGHTHXVIVTQSMCNZTPOUTBBPUGLGRAGRONAZOVVXAALQBZOELHOUQAQPAGHWXGPB", "greatwallsareprobablythreefeetthickweldedshutfromtheoutsideandcoveredwithbrickbynowdontgiveupjackokiwontwangletsjustchewourwayoutofherejustrememberwhatoldjackburtondoeswhentheearthquakesthepoisonarrowsfallfromtheskyandthepillarsofheavenshakeyeahjackburtonjustlooksthatbigoldstormrightintheeyeandsaysgivemeyourbestshoticantakeit", "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". The last part of the console output of a successful cryptographic attack. But checking the English frequency matching helped determine the four most likely letters for each subkey. Instead, because our subkeys are stored in tuples in allFreqScores, we’ll access those letters by index values, which will range from 0 to the number of letters we want to try minus 1. 4. import itertools, re  5. import vigenereCipher, pyperclip, freqAnalysis, detectEnglish. But we want the kasiskiExamination() function to return a list of integer factors, not a list of tuples with factors and the count of how often they appeared. The factors of 9 are 9, 3, and 1. This online tool breaks Vigenère ciphers without knowing the key. It operates by changing the cipher shift number on each letter used. # Use i + 1 so the first letter is not called the "0th" letter:181.             print('Possible letters for letter %s of the key: ' % (i + 1),                   end='')182.             for freqScore in allFreqScores[i]:183.                 print('%s ' % freqScore[0], end='')184.             print() # Print a newline. Notice that the letters LWM repeat twice. We want the code to continue looping and checking key lengths until it finds a potentially correct key length. To try to address these problems, let’s look at a longer example in which we don’t know what the key is. Then we’ll combine the letters into a single string. You can also access each tuple of the possible letters for each subkey by adding an additional index reference.

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